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Psychotherapy Guide

Psychotherapy Guide

Whats On This Page:

What is Psychotherapy ?

When to have Psychotherapy

Methods of Psychotherapy

Disorders That Psychotherapy can help

Learn to be a Psychotherapist

Psychotherapy in Manchester


Psychotherapy Guide

What is Psychotherapy ? Back to top

Psychotherapy is the treatment of psychological problems, such things as panic, depression, phobia, obsession, paranoia, feeling lost or stuck. Psychotherapy is a process that helps us become more aware of our feelings why we feel them, motivations, actions and thoughts, the therapist looks for "the man behind the mask" there are many different approaches in psychotherapy we will take a look at a few popular ones. If you Learn more about yourself and the world around you maybe you will find what is holding you back from achieving your full potential.

Mental illness is any disease or condition affecting the brain that influence the way a person thinks, feels, behaves and/or relates to others and to his or her surroundings. Although the symptoms of mental illness can vary from mild to severe and are different depending on the type of mental illness, a person with an untreated mental illness often is unable to cope with life's daily routines and demands



How does Mental Illness occur ?

  • Heredity Many mental illnesses run in families, suggesting that the illnesses may be passed on from parents to children through genes. But, just because your mother or father may have a mental illness doesn't mean you will have one.

  • Biology: Some mental illnesses have been linked to an abnormal balance of special chemicals in the brain called neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters help nerve cells in the brain communicate with each other. If these chemicals are out of balance or not working properly, messages may not make it through the brain correctly, leading to symptoms of mental illness. Also defects or injury to certain areas of the brain also have been linked to some mental conditions.

  • Psychological trauma: Some mental illnesses may be triggered by psychological trauma suffered as a child, such as severe emotional, physical or sexual abuse, the loss of a parent or neglect.

  • Environmental stressors: Certain stressors like a death, divorce, changing jobs or schools and substance abuse can trigger a disorder in a person who may be at risk for developing a mental illness.

  • Infections: Certain infections have been linked to brain damage and the development of mental illness or the worsening of its symptoms.

When to have Psychotherapy Back to top

Psychotherapy is recommended for individuals experiencing symptoms of psychological distress. If you are depressed, anxious fearful, angry or don't feel in control of your life psychotherapy might help you. If you are unhappy, having relationship problems, or feel you are not living up to your potential psychotherapy can give help develop greater self awareness and support your efforts in improving your life.
If you are unsure about starting psychotherapy, consult a mental health professional for an assessment and evaluation to help in making the decision about whether you need psychotherapy and what type.


What is the difference between Counselling and Psychotherapy ?
There is a big overlap between the two, both counselling and psychotherapy are about overcoming personal difficulties and facilitating change. The methods used are similar and in some instances the same. It is often considered that psychotherapy looks more into the past and the historical influences for the answers to now issues. The counsellor however may work more with crisis intervention.


Methods of Psychotherapy Back to top


Cognitive Behavioral

This method is useful for people with  phobias and has a good success rate in quite a short time,  the kinds of problems associated with cognitive are learnt like bad habits or a reaction from something that happened to you in the past, for instance as a child I was badly stung by wasps resulting in extreme fear of wasps which turned into a phobia, we can develop phobias about almost anything.



This is a method to try to help us achieve our full potential, the aim here is self-improvement mentally, physically and spiritually.



This is a machine to monitor heart rate, muscle tension and other non visible body functions, this equipment is very useful in the treatment of anxiety, it is a means of detection and  which enables the uses to control there bodily functions as relax again.  



Therapists who use this approach are concerned with our relationships not just of the human variety, our reaction ship with food or alcohol for instance is also included. The therapist helps us to live in the present look forward to the future and not dwell on the past, to move on.  



This is quite different from individual therapy, the therapists prime concern is to restore communication between two people, stop patterns of constant bickering over the same issues, help you to both reach a compromise.



This is a therapist who uses a range of techniques rather than only one, up until recently therapists used not to be so flexible and favored using one method.


Transactional Analysis

This method uses the theory that we think feel and act from different viewpoints depending on who we are interacting with, for instance the parent-caring/ nurturing, the child- venerable, or the adult -responsible. A healthy person can switch from one to the other but it is not healthy to be stuck in one this can lead to an inflexible approach to life and to others.



This is a system that helps us distinguish between what is real and what we think is real, the way we perceive situations can vary greatly, for example imagine a fat man working out at the gym one person might think its great he is trying to improve himself and another might think he should not be doing that he might have a heart attach and leave behind 6 children who could all end up in poverty.  NPL gives you the tools to distinguish what is real and what we imagine to be real. 


Group Psychotherapy
Group psychotherapy is intended to help people who would like to improve their ability to cope with difficulties and problems in their lives. But, while in individual therapy the patient meets with only one the therapist, in group therapy the meeting is with a whole group and one or two therapists. Group therapy focuses on interpersonal interactions, so relationship problems are addressed well in groups.
The aim of group psychotherapy is to help with solving the emotional difficulties and to encourage the personal development of the participants in the group.


Family Psychotherapy

Conducted with all or as many members as possible of a family. The work may all be done with the entire group or involve various combinations of family members. The process helps identify and modify destructive interaction patterns as well as help group communication and problem solving skills

Eclectic Therapy

Not a formal school of thought, is uses of a combination of approaches or theoretical orientations. It is used by most therapists. There are many different blends. It is a recognition that individuals may benefit from a variety of techniques. The eclectic approach can be flexible and adaptive and avoid forcing treatment into one size fits all limitations. It is necessary that the therapist be well grounded in several of the more orthodox approaches to treatment rather than using bits and pieces through a lack of familiarity.

Existential Therapy

An approach that examines some of the major issues in our existence such as the meaning of life, loneliness, mortality, and the challenge of free will. It focuses on taking responsibility for ones choices and creating our own meaning and purpose. It is especially useful with the elderly and in working on issues of death and dying. Though it emphasizes needs of the individual it usually helps patients find new meaning in their relationships.


The personality theory and psychotherapeutic approach pioneered by Sigmund Freud. Freud is known as the father of psychoanalysis. The approach emphasizes making the unconscious conscious and thereby giving the individual choices in life rather than being at the whim of unknown forces within themselves. Psychoanalysis frequently uses dreams and free associations as the subject matter for treatment. The therapist says little but guides the patient in interpreting the meaning of the intrusion of unconscious material into everyday life.

Psychodynamic Psychotherapy

Is the term used to describe treatment approaches based on psychoanalytic principals, but which are conducted less frequently, over a shorter duration and allow a small amount of eclecticism. Psychodynamic therapists are more active than psychoanalysts.

Stress Management

Training is a process of identifying stressors, learning ones physiological and cognitive responses to stress and developing techniques to manage those responses. Common stress management techniques are systematic desensitization, relaxation training, and cognitive therapy.

Medication Management

The use of psychotropic medications to manage emotional, cognitive, and behavioral symptoms. The medication is prescribed by psychiatrists after thorough evaluation and with ongoing monitoring. Medication management is usually implemented in conjunction with other therapies aimed at treating the underlying causes of the condition.

Disorders That Psychotherapy can help  Back to top

Adjustment Disorders

These are conditions with clinically significant emotional or behavioral symptoms which are in response to identifiable psychosocial stress. Like- retirement, business problems, housing problems, becoming a parent, financial difficulties, marital problems. The stressor can be occasional or continuous. The stressor might effect one individual, a particular family, or the whole community after a disaster.

The symptoms of Adjustment Disorders can develop within 3 months of the onset of the stress. The reaction is characterized by excessive distress and over reaction.

Adjustment Disorders are subdivided into six types:
1. Adjustment Disorder With Depressed Mood - feeling of hopelessness, sadness, or crying a lot.
2. Adjustment Disorder With Anxiety - feeling nervousness, worrying, or experiencing jitteriness.
3. Adjustment Disorder With Anxiety & Depressed Mood - feeling of hopelessness, nervousness or feeling sad, worrying or crying a lot or experiencing jitteriness.
4. Adjustment Disorder With Disturbance of Conduct - rebel from normal society rules. They can diplay acts of  truancy, vandalism, reckless driving, fighting.
5. Adjustment Disorder With Mixed Disturbance of Emotions and Conduct - people with some emotional symptoms and disturbance of conduct symptoms.
6. Adjustment Disorder, Unspecified - other reactions like as withdrawal, inhibition, or physical symptoms such as stomach aches or headaches.

Adjustment Disorders lasting less than six months are acute.

Adjustment Disorder lasting longer than six months are chronic


Anxiety Disorders

Conditions characterized by high levels of anxiety. Anxiety has an unpleasant affect with both  and psychological symptoms.

Physiological Symptoms can include rapid shallow breathing, muscle tension, increased heart rate, sweating, and trembling.

Psychological symptoms can include feelings of dread, impending doom, powerlessness,  over vigilance,  sense of doubt.

Anxiety Disorders are often seen in combination.
Panic Attack

The sudden onset of intense fear, terror, apprehension and a sense of impending doom lasting from several minutes to several hours. Both the physiological and psychological symptoms of anxiety are experienced to a marked degree.

Anxiety or avoidance related to going places where you might feel vulnerable, afraid to leave home.
Specific Phobia

A high degree of anxiety related to exposure to a specific element. The anxiety is continual,  exaggerated and often leads to avoidance.
Social Phobia

A high degree of anxiety when exposed to social situations. The anxiety is continual, exaggerated and often leads to avoidance.

Anxiety Disorder because of a General Medical Condition

Characterized by prominent symptoms of anxiety that are judged to be a direct physiological consequence of a general medical condition.
Substance-Induced Anxiety Disorder

Characterized by prominent symptoms of anxiety that are judged to be a direct result of a drug of abuse, a medication or toxin exposure
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Unwanted, persistent and intrusive thoughts, repetitive, ritualistic behaviors. Common obsessions include persistent thoughts about contamination and clenliness, accident, injury or loss. Doubts creep in to the mind did I lock the door ? did I turn the fire off ? excessive hand washing and checking.
Post traumatic Stress Disorder

Characterized by re-experiencing the anxiety that happened to you in a previous traumatic event and the avoidance of stimuli associated with the event. The original event is, or is perceived to be life threatening.
Acute Stress Disorder

Characterized by high levels experienced immediately after an extremely traumatic occurrence.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Characterized by at least six months of persistent and excessive anxiety and worry.

Dissociative disorders

People with these disorders suffer severe disturbances or changes in memory, consciousness, identity, and general awareness of themselves and their surroundings. These disorders usually are associated with overwhelming stress, which may be the result of traumatic events, accidents or disasters that may be experienced or witnessed by the individual.


Eating disorders

Eating disorders involve extreme emotions, attitudes and behaviors involving weight and food. Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder are the most common eating disorders


Factitious disorders

Factitious disorders are conditions in which physical and/or emotional symptoms are experienced in order to place the individual in the role of a patient or a person in need of help.


Impulse-Control Disorders
Difficulty controlling impulses Impulse Disorders include:
Intermittent Explosive Disorder aggression and causing bodily harm or property destruction.
Kleptomania to steal objects without the motive of monetary gain.
Pyromania setting fires for hedonistic purposes.
Pathological Gambling habitual, self destructive gambling.
Tricotillomania pulling out hair for self gratification or tension release.

Mood Disorders
Depression is extremely common affecting up to twenty percent of the population at some point during their life. depression treatable with up to eighty percent of those treated reporting significant improvement. Sadly many people that are depressed never get treatment because they dont ask for help.

Depression and mania are both classified as mood disorders. They can occur separately or together. Depression can range from mild to moderate to severe. It can be short or long lasting.

How do I know if I am Depressed ? the following symptoms may be apparent:

Depressed Mood you feel sad, tearful, or just empty
Lack of interest in everything.
Weight loss or gain
Feeling agitated
Lack of energy or tired all the time
Feeling worthless

Feeling guilt.
Difficulty in concentration

Hard to make a decision
Plans or attempts of suicide or thoughts of death.
Insomnia or sleeping too much


Personality Disorders
The diagnosis of Personality Disorder is used to identify individuals with consistent and long lasting patterns of deviation from society.

Paranoid Personality Disorder distrust and suspiciousness of others.
Schizoid Personality Disorder social isolation and emotional constriction.
Schizotypal Personality Disorder social unease, eccentric behavior
Antisocial Personality Disorder violation of the rights of others or society.
Borderline Personality Disorder impulsive behavior and unstable social relationships.
Histrionic Personality Disorder attention seeking and marked emotionality.
Narcissistic Personality Disorder self centeredness, attention seeking, grandiosity, of empathy.
Avoidant Personality Disorder social constriction, negative self evaluation and low self esteem.
Dependent Personality Disorder clinging and submissive relationships, desire to be taken care of.
Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder must keep in control, tidiness, perfectionism.

The Psychotic Disorders

characterized by hallucinations, delusions, personality disorganization, loss of ego boundaries, the inability to meet the ordinary demands of life.

People with schizophrenia may have perceptions of reality that are extremely different from the reality seen and shared by others around them. They can hear voices, talk to themselves, or respond to imaginary fears.
A person with schizoaffective disorder experiences some symptoms of schizophrenia as well as symptoms of a mood disorder, such as depression or mania.

Delusional disorder

previously called paranoid disorder, is a type of serious mental illness called a psychosis in which a person cannot tell what is real from what is imagined.


Sexual and gender disorders

These include disorders that affect sexual desire, performance and behavior. Sexual dysfunction, gender identity disorder and the paraphilias are examples of sexual and gender disorders.


Somatoform Disorders
Conditions that are seem like a physical disorder but on examination cannot be found as a medical disorder.
Somatization Disorder used to be called hysteria. Primarily affecting women, normally has its onset in adolescence or early adulthood and lasts for years. Its symptoms usually include a combination of pain, pseudoneurological, digestive and sexual complaints.

Undifferentiated Somatoform Disorder milder form of Somatization Disorder lasting at least six months.
Conversion Disorder unexplained sensory motor deficits which are judged to be psychogenic.
Pain Disorder exacerbation of the condition.
Hypochondriasis the fear illness, exaggeration of symptoms into serious illness.
Body Dysmorphic Disorder preoccupation with a presumed or exaggerated physical defect.


Tic disorders

People with tic disorders make sounds or display body movements that are repeated, quick, sudden or uncontrollable. Sounds that are made involuntarily are called vocal tics. Tourette syndrome is an example of a tic disorder.


Psychotherapy training Back to top

Established in 1987, the Manchester Institute is a non profit making educational organisation, specialising in the areas of Psychotherapy and Counselling Trainings, Counselling and Therapy Services, Supervision Training, Continuing Professional Development, and Psychotherapy Conferences


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 Psychotherapy in Manchester  Back to Top

Gaskell House Psychotherapy Service
0161 273 2762

Swinton Grove
Manchester, M13 0EU

Joy Winder BA,Dip Psych,UK CP Reg,Bacp Reg
0161 226 6948

10 Demesne Rd
Manchester, M16 8HG

Dr Claire Bacha Ph.d, Mem, Iga
0161 773 0409
20 Kersal Rd
Manchester, M25 9SJ

Redhouse Psychotherapy Services
0161 794 0875

78 Manchester Rd
Manchester, M27 5FG

Evolve Psychotherapy & Conselling Services
0161 789 8789

21 Oxford St
Manchester, M30 0FW


Dr John Casson UKCP Reg.Dip.Psychd

01457 877161
St. Chads Offices High St
Oldham, OL3 6AP

Manchester Institute for Psychotherapy

0161 862 9456
454 Barlow Moor Road
Chorlton Manchester M21 0BQ


Intergrative Psychotherapy Centre

0161 8617468
274 A Upper Chorlton Road,

Manchester, M16 0BN

North West Institute of Dynamic Psychotherapy
0161 203 5968

Macartney House Beech Mount
Manchester, M9 5XS

Worsley Centre for Psychotherapy & Counselling
0161 703 7361

50 Bridgewater Rd
Manchester, M28 3AE

May Senior-Johnson PTSTA,MSc,UKCP Reg

0161 929 0504
17 Swale Drive
Altrincham, WA14 4UD


Choice Psychotherapy & Counselling
01706 823405
6-8 Taper St
Bury, BL0 9EX

If you have Psychotherapy  clinic here free.

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